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Posted 07 May 2017 - 07:40 PM

Kawasaki Ki.45Kai Type 2 Toryu (Dragon Killer) T.A.I.C "Nick 1"


     The following information is taken from the T.A.I.C. 154A-2 report.


Altitude / Speed / Climb / Time to height.

Meters /   MPH  /  FPM  / Minutes to altitude

S.L......     294      2595        --------

  1,000     307      2641        1.35

  2,000     320      2688        2.55

  3,000     333      2651        3.70

  4,000     334      2438        5.03

  5,000     337      2458        6.50

  6,000     350      2301        8.20

  7,000     348      1831       10.10

  8,000     337      1361       12.40

  9,000     324        891       15.00

10,000     308        421



     Full Throttle Height Low Super Charger:

     FTH L. S.C.:                              336 mph./3,200 m.

     Switch from Low/High S.C.:      332 mph./4,650 m.

     FTH Hi S.C.:                             354 mph./6,280 m.



     Critical Altitude Low S/C:  2,725 fpm./2,804 m.

     Switch Low/High S/C:       2,430 fpm./3,581 m.

     Critical Altitude High S/C: 2,470 fpm./5,640 m.


Engine: Mitsubishi Type 1 (Ha-102): 1,065 hp./T.O. & S.L.

                                Military: 1,040 hp./9,200 ft.,   935 hp./19,000 ft.

                 War Emergency: 1,135 hp./8,500 ft.



Combat:       28,770 ft.

Operational: 32,260 ft.

Service:        35,050 ft.


Combat Weight: 11,688 lbs.


Speeds (military): 286 mph./S.L.,  346 mph./21,100 ft.


Range: 1,405 mls./152 mph./1,500 ft./363 gallons of fuel

             1,229 naut. mls./131 knts./1,500ft./301 Imp. gal.


Given dimensions: 49.5' Span, 34.7' Length, Wing Area: 365 sq. ft.

Actual dimensions (Ko): 49'  3 5/16" Span, 34'  9 5/16" Length,

                                        Wing Area: 344.444 sq. ft.

                             (Hei): Same except Length: 36' 1  1/16"


Wing Loading: 33.93 lbs./ sq. ft.

Power Loading: 5.149 lbs./ at take-off (W.E.) power.


General Data: All performance figures calculated. Nick has been

described as "maneuverable for a twin-engine plane" and "fast in

a dive". Combat reports however indicate Nick cannot dive or maneuver

with late P-40s and explodes when hit in fuel tanks. This plane has been

used as a night fighter with indifferent success and the 37 mm cannon

indicates that it may also be used for ground attack. Although not

definitely known it is believed that two light bombs could be carried.

Edited by CORSNING, 17 May 2017 - 03:54 PM.



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Posted 07 May 2017 - 08:19 PM

Kawasaki ki.45 Type 2 Toryu (Dragon Slayer) "Nick" Timeline



March 1937: An official specification for a twin-engine heavy fighter was issued

     to Japanese aircraft manufacturers. In answer three projects were submitted,

     to the Koku Hombu, Nakajima Ki.37, Kawasaki Ki.38 and Mitsubishi Ki.39.

     Nakajima and Mitsubishi were allowed to withdraw owing to previous more

     pressing projects.


October 1937: Under the leadership or Isamu Imashi a Ki.38 mock-up was

     constructed. but was shelved to give the JAAF time to formulate performance

     and handling requirements.


December 1937: The Japanese Arm instructed Kawasaki to initiate work on the

     Ki.45, a development of the Ki.38, to meet a new specification for a twin-engine

     two-seat fighter; maximum speed: 540 km./h @ 3,500 m. Endurance of 4 hrs.

     40 minutes @ 350 km./h in 2,000 to 5,000 m. plus 30 minutes at combat rating

     Armament to be two forward firing guns and one flexible rear-firing machine gun.


January 1939: Experimental Ki.45 (4501) emerged from the Gifu plant. It had semi-

     elliptical wings. The engines were unable to reach full power at this time. Though

     not stated, I believe this was the time of the first prototypes first test flights.

     Engines: 2 x Nakajima Ha-20b: 790 hp./T.O.,   820 hp./3,900 m.  

     Landing gear was hand-operated and difficult to retract.


May 1939: The landing gear became electrically operated with the 3rd prototype.


November 1939: At a conference of Imperial Army Air Force engineering test pilots &

     service evaluation test pilots at the Akeno Flying School, the Ki.45 was pronounced

     "incapable of performing the missions considered necessary for a two-seat fighter."

     In mock combat and enjoying the advantage of altitude at the beginning of the

     exercise, the Ki.45 proved incapable of besting the Ki.10 fighter biplane. The rear

     gun was virtually useless at high speeds. (Or during maneuvering fights).


December 1939: The Ki.45 prototype managed 480 km/h @ 4,000 m. The JAAF

     decided to stop flight trials pending review of the project. Six Ki.45 prototypes,

     numbers 4504 - 4509, were left uncompleted.


April 1940: Kawasaki was instructed to fit two Nakajima Ha 25 engines with single-

     stage superchargers to one of the uncompleted airframes. 


July 1940: First flight of Ki.45 No.4507 with the more powerful Nakajima Ha.25:

     Ha.25 Sakae: 970 hp./T.O.,   1,050hp./2,542 m. The opening of full cowl flaps

     and one tearing off on take-off caused a violent engine stall causing damage

     to propellers, landing gear and wing tips.


October 1940: Koku Hombu (Imperial Japanese Army Aviation Bureau) to the

     redesigned Ki.45 Kai proposed by Takeo Doi (chief project engineer)

     1. Slimmer and redesigned tail surfaces.

     2. Straight tapered wings which increased span and wing area by 3 sq. m.

     3. Smaller diameter engine nacelles mounted lower on the wings.

     4. 2 x 12.7 mm Type 1 Ho-103 & 1 x rear-firing 7.9 mm Type 98 machine gun.

     5. Reflector gun sight replaces the telescopic sight.


May 1941: The first Ki.45 Kai prototype was completed.


September 1941: Flight trial began on the Ki.45 Kai prototype. The aircraft was

     accepted as the Army Type 2 two-seat Fighter Model A Toryu (Dragon

     Killer), Ki.45 Kai-Ko (a).


August 1942: The 5th Sentai at Kashiwa, Chiba Prefecture became the first unit

     to receive the Ki.45 Kai-Ko. The 21st Sentai in Burma and the 16th Sentai in

     China received their Ki.45 Kai-Kos soon after.


October 1942: The 21st Sentai becomes the first Ki.45 unit to reach a combat area.

     Pilot armor, heavy armament and fuel tank protection made the Ki.45 popular

     with its flight crews. Ease of maintenance made it popular with it ground crew.


Late 1943: The Ki.45 Kai-Otsu entered service.
     Engines: 2 x Mitsubishi Ha-102: 1,080 hp./2,700 rpm./T.O.,   1,050 hp./2,600 rpm/

     2,800 m.,   950 hp./2,600 rpm./5,800 m.

     Armament: 1 x 20 mm. Ho.3 cannon + 1 x 37 mm. Type 98 cannon forward firing.

          1 x 7.9 mm. Type 98 flexible machine gun firing to the rear (later deleted).

     Normal Loaded Weight: 12,081 - 12,125 lbs.


July 1945: The last of 1,691 Ki.45s rolled off the assembly line.


The following information applies to the various models using military engine rating.


Ki.45 Kai-Ko, Heavy Fighter, August 1942:

     Engines: 2 x  Mitsubishi Ha-25: 970 hp./T.O.,   1,050 hp./2,542 m.

     Combat Weight: 5,276 kg. (11,632 lbs.) 

     Maximum Speeds: 467 km/h (290 mph.)/S.L.,   547 km/h (340 mph.)/7,000 m. (22,965 ft.)

     Climb: 5,000 m./6' 17"

     Service Ceiling: 35,200 ft.

     Range: 2,260 km./260 km/h (1,404 mls./161 mph.)

     Armament: 2 x 12.7 mm + 1 x 20 mm. forward + 1 x 7.92 mm. flexible rear.


Ki.45 Kai-Otsu, Anti-shipping & Attack, Late 1943:

     Engines: 2 x Mitsubishi Ha-102: 1,080 hp./2,700 rpm./T.O.,   1,050 hp./2,600 rpm./2,800 m.

                    950 hp./2,600 rpm./5,800 m. (Early production had Ha-25

     Armament: 1 x 20 mm. cannon + 1 x 37 mm. cannon forward firing.


Ki.45 Kai-Hei, Interceptor:

     Engines: 2 x Mitsubishi Ha-102

     Combat Weight:  5,500 kg. (12,125 lbs.)

     Maximum Speeds: 462 km/h (287 mph.)/S.L.,   540 km/h (335.5 mph.)/6,000 m. (19,685 ft.).

     Climb: 5,000 m./6.2 - 7.0 minutes.

     Service Ceiling: 10,000 m. (32,810 ft.)

     Range: 2,000 km. (1,243 mls.)

     Armament: 1 x 37 mm. + 2 x 20 mm. Oblique dorsal + 1 x 7.92 mm. rear m.g.  


Ki.45 Kai-Tei, Anti-Shipping:

     Engines: 2 x Mistubishi Ha-102

     Armament: 1 x 37 mm. Ho.203 cannon + 2 x 2 mm. cannon forward + 2 x 250 kg. (551 lbs.)


Edited by CORSNING, 17 May 2017 - 03:30 PM.



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Posted 17 May 2017 - 04:06 PM

Air Enthusiast Vol.5 No.6, December 1973


Page 277: "...the Kawasaki fighter was surprisingly nimble by twin-engine aircraft standards,

a fact to which Allied pilots who evaluated the Ki.45Kai after the end of hostilities were to

attest. Indeed, Toryu was probably the most maneuverable twin-engine fighter to be employed

operationally by any of the combatants during WWII, and when first encountered over China by

the Allies was observed pervorming half-rolls, steep chandelles and Immelman turns. While it

was to find itself outclassed in the air-to-air combat area by Allied single-engine single-seat

fighters, it was never to be considered and "easy kill" and it was to prove capable of out-

maneuvering the P-38 Lightning without difficulty."

     " Toryu was very much a pilot's aeroplane and displayed no serious vices."

Edited by CORSNING, 17 May 2017 - 04:06 PM.

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