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CURTISS HAWK 75 / P-36 TIMELINE


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#1 CORSNING

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Posted 07 December 2016 - 06:51 PM

                                                     Model 75 The Prototypes

 

November 1934: Construction on the prototype began after the USAAC issued specifications

      for an all metal low-wing fighter capable of 300 mph. This became the Model 75.

 

May 1935: Flight testing began at Buffalo, New York with a civil registration number

     X-17Y.

 

27 May 1935: The Model 75 was submitted at Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio for competition

     flight trials. None of the other contenders were ready to compete at this time. 

     Engine: Wright SR-1670-5: 900hp. (the engine was troublesome).

     Proposed armament: 1 x 0.5 in./200 rds. + 1 x 0.3 in./500 rds. in upper cowl.

    

15 August 1935: Seversky's SEV-1XP finally is submitted for competition. The USAAC

     favored Seversky's entry but Curtiss protested that Seversky had been given an

     unfair advantage of time. The Material Division deferred competition until April 1936.

 

15 April 1936: The Model 75B is submitted to Wright Field and the AAC flight competition

     trials were resumed.

     Model 75B: Fuselage behind the canopy was scalloped to improve rear vision.

     Engine: Wright XR-1820-39 (G5) Cyclone: 950 hp./2,200 rpm./Take-off.

          850 hp./S.L.to 6,000 ft.(1,830 m.). The engine was troublesome and required

          four engine changes during the trials.

     The canopy was strengthened. Test weight: 5,075 lbs. Speed: 285 mph. ( 294 mph.

     had been guaranteed by Curtiss).

 

16 June 1936: Seversky won the fighter trials & the P-35 gets a production contract for

     seventy-seven aircraft. Three weeks later Curtiss got an order for three Model 75Bs

     (Y1P-36).

 

7 August 1936: The USAAC stipulated that the three Y1P-36s are powered by Pratt &

     Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp engines.

 

March 1937-22 June 1937: The Y1P-36 successfully passed official AAC trials.

     Maneuverability was excellent except for some jerkiness at the start of spins

     or rolls. Effectiveness of controls were excellent at all speeds. Stability and ground

     handling were commendable. Engine: Pratt & Whitney R-1830-13: 950 hp./T.O.

     900 hp./2,550 rpm./12,000 ft. Speed 294.5 mph./10,000 ft. (3,048 m.). Range:

     752 mls./256 mph./126 imp. gal. Climb: 3,145 fpm./S.L., 10,000 ft./3.44 minutes.


Edited by CORSNING, 24 December 2016 - 02:35 PM.


#2 CORSNING

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Posted 07 December 2016 - 08:12 PM

                                     Hawk 75 M, N & O The Inexpensive Exports

 

Note: All the following models in this section had fixed landing gear.

 

Late 1936: Curtiss began developing a simplified version of the Y1P-36 for export service.

 

1937: Curtiss-Wright modified the original Hawk 75B (A/C No.1276) by simplifying it with 

     fixed under carriage with legs incased in streamlined light metal fairings. Firepower was

     1 x 0.5 in. (12.7 mm.) + 1 x 0.3 in. (7.7 mm.) cowl machine guns. The aircraft was re-

     engined with a Wright Cyclone GR-1820-G3: 875 hp./2,200 rpm./T.O., 840 hp./2,100 fpm./

     8,700 ft. (2,650 m.).

Note: The Chinese National Government was interested enough to immediately purchase the

     demonstrator for $36,000 and Madame Chiang Kai-shek presented it to General Clair L.

     Chenault. Hawk 75M became the official designation for the Chinese models.

 

1937: The second demonstrator, aircraft No.1277  became the Hawk 75H. It had a deeply

     scalloped decking for better rear view and the armament was increased by adding 2 x 0.3

     in. machine guns in the wings + the ability to carry 10 x 30 lbs. or 6 x 50 lbs. bombs under

     the wings in addition to one centerline 500 lbs. bomb.

 

November 1938: One Model 75Q is delivered to China.

 

November 1938: The first of 25 Hawk 75Ns were delivered to Thailand which had been

     ordered quickly after the Chinese order.

 

November 1938: Curtiss completes the first of thirty Hawk 75Os ordered by Argentina along

     a license for Argentina to build the Hawks at the Fabrica Militar de Aviones plant. Armament

     was 4 x 7.62 mm. Madsen M.1935 machine guns.

 

1939-1940: 112 Hawk 75Ms had been delivered to the Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company

     at Loi-Wing, China. Some reports indicated that up to 60 examples of the Hawk 75Ms had

     been assembled and used against the Japanese These had been used against the Japanese

     with limited success. This was mainly due to poor serviceability and indifferent training of the

     pilots & ground crews. 26 October 1940 the Loi-Wing factory was bombed by the Japanese

     and put out of action.

 

16 September 1940: The first of 20 FMA-built Hawk 750s are delivered to the Argentina military. 

 

 Note: Forty-five of a final total of 50 Hawks supplied to the Argentina government were still in

     active service in 1945.

 

1954: Hawk 75s were still being used as advanced trainers at the Escela de Aviacion Militar

     at Cordoba, Spain.


Edited by CORSNING, 24 December 2016 - 02:59 PM.


#3 Armand

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Posted 07 December 2016 - 08:27 PM

What happened with the first claims by the Frenchmen in 1939?

#4 CORSNING

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Posted 07 December 2016 - 09:04 PM

                                                     Curtiss P-36 USAAC/USAAF

 

7 July 1937: The USAAC awarded Curtiss-Wright a $4,113,550 contract for 210 production

     aircraft fitted with Pratt & Whitney R-1830-13 Twin Wasp engines and Curtiss constant-

     speed airscrews.

 

April 1938: The first production P-36A No.38-001 was delivered to the USAAC, 20th Pursuit

     Group at Barksdale Field, 55th, 77th & 79th Pursuit Squadrons. This aircraft differed from

     the export Hawk 75s in that it had engine cowl flaps and bulging covers over the cowl

     guns. P-36A No.38-015 and on had the Pratt & Whitney R-1830-17 engine.

Note: Severe skin buckling, engine exhaust difficulties and weakness in the fuselage structure

     were encountered. Constantly grounded the six serviceable aircraft were flown under

     limitations restricting aerobatics and combat maneuvers. Speed was limited to 250 mph.

 

November 1938: The 20th airframe No.38020 was fitted with a R-1830-25, 1,100 hp. engine

     and designated P-36B. This aircraft attained 313 mph. but was converted back to P-36A

     standards.

 

26 January 1939: The USAAC orders Curtiss-Wright to convert the last thirty P-36As of the

     original 210 ordered to P-36C standards  with the P&W R-1830-17 engine.

 

30 April 1939: Curtiss-Wright completes delivery of the original 210 aircraft ordered. Eighty-

     one factory changes had been made to the P-36A, some major. Combat weight had risen

     to 5,650 lbs. and maximum speed had fallen to 300 mph. at 10,000 ft.

 

30 April 1939: The last 30 airframes of the original order had been completed as P-36Cs

     Armament was increased to 1 x 0.5 in. + 1 x 0.3 in cowl and 2 x 0.3 in wing guns. Combat

     weight had risen to 5,735 lbs.

 

February 1941: Twenty P-36s in crates are delivered to the 23rd Pursuit Squadron at Elmendorf

     Air Force Base, Alaska and 31 were delivered to Wheeler Field, Hawaii.

 

7 December 1941: Thirty-nine P-36As were on hand at various bases in the Hawaiian Islands

     when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. The 46th Squadron's P-36As being credited with

     the first USAAF "kills" in the Pacific Theater.


Edited by CORSNING, 24 December 2016 - 03:13 PM.


#5 Armand

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Posted 07 December 2016 - 09:19 PM

OK with Me. I just reacted on the timeline progressing past 1939. ;-)

#6 CORSNING

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Posted 08 December 2016 - 10:05 PM

                                                     H75A-1 / Hawk 75A-1

 

February 1938: The French government entered into negotiations with the Curtiss for the

     supply of 300 Hawk 75As. These differed from the earlier Hawk 75 export models in

     that they had retractable undercarriage.

 

March 1938: President Roosevelt intervened between Curtiss and France. This allowed

     Michel Detroyat, a leading French test pilot, to fly the Y1P-36 at Wright Field. He

     submitted a thoroughly enthusiastic report to the French government.

 

28 April 1938: The unit price of the Hawk 75A remained an obstacle so the Comite du

     Materiel decided to hold back a decision until official trials of the Bloch MB-150 had

     been completed.

     Note: Unit prices of the following aircraft were:

          Moraine-Saulnier 406:  Fr 1,314,000

          Bloch MB-150:              Fr 1,237,000

          Hawk 75A-1:                 Fr 2,365,000

 

17 May 1938: Delays in the deliveries of the MB-150 prompted the Ministry of Air, Guy

     La Chambre to order 100 Hawk 75A-1s and 173 Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp

     engines.

 

14 December 1938: The first two production H75A-1s were delivered to Le Havre, France

     via the SS Paris.

     Armament: 4 x 7.5 mm machine guns. (2 cowl mounted + 2 wing mounted). 

     All instruments were metric calibrated.

     A modified seat was fitted to accommodate the French Lemercier back parachute.

     The throttle operated in the reverse direction to British or US aircraft.

    

March 1939: H75A-1s ( The " Hawk " name was not officially used in French service )

     began entering service and a few months later became operational with the

     Groupe de Chasse 11/5 La Fayette.

 

12 May 1939: All H75A-1 had been received, assembled and rapidly put into service.

 

8 September 1939: The first French aircraft victory over Germany was when five aircraft

     from Groupe de Chasse II/4 destroyed two Bf.109s.

 

25 June 1940: H75A-1 became Mohawk Is when pressed into RAF service after the

     evacuation of France.


Edited by CORSNING, 10 December 2016 - 03:09 PM.


#7 CORSNING

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Posted 10 December 2016 - 04:00 PM

                                                              H75A-2 / Hawk 75A-2

 

8 March 1939: One hundred H75A-2s are ordered by France. These had structural

     reinforcements of the rear fuselage and minor modifications to permit quick change-

     out of the engines.

     Engine: P&W R-1830-SC2-G: 1050 hp.

     Armament: 2 x 7.5 mm./600 rpg. nose mounted. + 4 x 7.5 mm./500 rpg. wing mounted.

 

Late May 1939: H75A-2 deliveries began to France. The 1st 40 aircraft had the P&W

     R-1830-SC-3G engine and  4 x 7.5 mm machine guns, the same as the H75A-1.

 

June 1940: H75A-2s became Mohawk IIs in RAF service after the evacuation of France.


Edited by CORSNING, 10 December 2016 - 06:11 PM.


#8 CORSNING

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Posted 10 December 2016 - 06:10 PM

                                                        H75A-3 / Hawk 75A-3

 

9 October 1939: 135 H75A-3s are ordered by France. 60 of these aircraft reached

     France before the armistice. The engine and armament remained the same as

     the H75A-2. Speed: 311 mph./3,048 m.  Initial climb was listed as 2,350 fpm.

     Range was 820 mls. Combat weight: 5,692 to 5,732 lbs.

 

June 1940: The remaining 75 aircraft were diverted to Britain where they became

     Mohawk IIIs.


Edited by CORSNING, 11 December 2016 - 06:53 PM.


#9 CORSNING

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Posted 10 December 2016 - 07:10 PM

                                                         H75A-4 / Hawk 75A-4

 

9 October 1939: 395 H75A-4s are ordered by France but only six are received before

     France surrenders on 22 June 1940.

 

June 1940: Seventeen H75A-4s arrive in Martinique and six arrive in Guadelupe in the

     West Indies. These aircraft were sent to Morocco and refurbished to be used as

     trainers in 1943-44. Their Cyclone 9s were replaced by P&W Twin Wasps.

 

Note: 291 H75As of all models became operational in France before the armistice. The

     H75As units claimed 230 confirmed kills and 80 probable against a loss of 29 aircraft

     lost in aerial combat.


Edited by CORSNING, 11 December 2016 - 06:53 PM.


#10 CORSNING

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Posted 10 December 2016 - 07:29 PM

                                                              Hawk 75A-5 / H75A-5

 

Early 1939: The Chinese National Government acquired a manufacturing license for the

     Hawk 75A. The contract calling for Curtiss to supply a pattern aircraft.

 

Spring 1940: Curtiss delivered on Hawk 75A-5 to the Chinese Nationalist Air Force

     with a Wright Cyclone 9 engine.

 

26 October 1940: The Loi-Wing factory was severely damaged by Japanese bombers.

     A few examples of the Hawk 75A-5 had left the assembly lines.

 

Late 1941: After all the tools, jigs, equipment and product that could be salvaged from

     the Loi-Wing facility had been transferred to the Hindustrand Aircraft Factory at

     Bangalore, India, production resumed.

 

1942: Hawk 75A-5s went into service by the Chinese Air Force at Kumning. A few were

     flown by American Volunteer Group (Flying Tigers) before they disbanded in mid-

     1942.

 

31 July 1942: The first flight of the Indian-assembled Hawk 75A-5. Five aircraft had

     been produced in india before production was abandoned. These later became

     Mohawk IVs in RAF service.


Edited by CORSNING, 24 December 2016 - 03:23 PM.





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