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Posted 14 August 2013 - 10:00 PM

Kawasaki Ki.61-I Hein:

OPERATIONAL: First combat operation unit was by the 68th Sentai over New Guinea in June 1943. The Japanese were pleased with its abilities against the P-40E, P-40F, and the early Allison engine P-39s (P-39D-K).

T.A.I.C 154A Ki.61-I TONY I:

Altitude.Speed/Climb/Time to height.
Meters...mph/fpm/minutes to altitude.



FTH: 361 mph./4,817 m.


Critical altitude low: 2,520 fpm./1,524 m.

Critical altitude high: 2,470 fpm./4,207 m.

Test Weight: 6,982 lbs.

Armament: 2 x 20mm w/120rpg. in upper deck of fuselage + 2 x 12,7mm w/200rpg in wings.

Engine Power: 1,160 hp. take off. 1,100 hp./12,600 ft.


Wing Area: 215.28 sq. ft.

Wing Loading: 33.64 lbs/sq.ft.

Power Loading: 6.347 lbs./hp.

Range: 1,195mls./215mph/1,500ft.(Clean 199 gallons). 2,010mls./148mph/1,500ft.(Max. 299 gallons).


Edited by CORSNING, 30 March 2017 - 06:54 PM.



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Posted 15 August 2013 - 09:22 PM

Kawasaki Ki.61-II:

Information comes from T.A.I.C. 154B. It is dated March 1945.

Engine: Kawasaki Ha 140, 1,380hp./take off, 1,320hp./5,550 ft., 1,440hp./5,700 ft. with 92 octane fuel.

The GENERAL DATA section of this report states:
Performance figures are based on fragmentary documentary evidence and resultant extrapolation of engine ratings.

Before I continue I would like to add that some of the other A/C in the T.A.I.C. reports are calculated and a few of the A/C were fixed up and flown with U.S. 100 octane fuel. The IJNAF did have some 100 octane 

fuel, however it was mostly used for test vehicles.

Altitude.Speed/Climb/Time to height.
Meters...mph/fpm/minutes to altitude.


FTH in low stage s/c: 362 mph./1,830 m.

Switch low to high: 365 mph./3,050 m.

FTH in high stage s/c: 423 mph./8,536.5m.


Critical altitude 1st stage s/c: 3,560 fpm./1,830 m.

Switch low to high: 3,150 fpm./3,050 m.

Critical altitude 2nd stage s/c: 2,600 fpm./8,231.7 m.

Note: Both speed and climb graphs became eliptical between 1,830 m. and 5,335 m. indicating a loss in engine power between these altitudes.

Combat Ceiling: 37,400 ft. (Probably the highest of all Japanese fighters)
Operational Ceiling: 40,700 ft.
Service Ceiling: 43,000 ft.

Range: 1,130 mls./229mph/1,500 ft. on 199 gallons of fuel and 2,120 mls./160mph/1,500 ft. on 255 gallons.

Test Weight: 7,232 lbs.


Wing Area: 215.28 sq. ft.

Wing Loading: 33.64 lbs./sq.ft.

Power Loading: 5.020 lbs./hp.

Armament: 2 guns in cowl: 2 x 12.7mm/250 rpg. or 2 x 20mm/150 rpg. Plus 2 guns in wings: 2 x 12.7mm/200 rpg. or 2 x 20mm/100 rpg.

For what Wikipedia is worth, it lists the Ki.61-II as having shot down the majority of B-29s. I am not quite sure how much stock to put into Wiki's statement, but the Ki.61-II, when compared to other late war Japanese fighters, does have one of the best high altitude performances. Its speed and climbing ability easily exceeded

the Ki 100 at very high altitudes.

Edited by CORSNING, 04 April 2017 - 06:28 PM.



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Posted 17 August 2013 - 01:35 PM

Kawasaki Ki 100-I


I do not have any official test data on this model. What I do have can be viewed on j-aircraft. The following data appears to be from Japanese test reports. I have noticed that official test reports on Japanese aircraft are mostly at the engines maximum continuous power settings and not the engines temporary (5 min.-30min.) combat boosted limits like U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R. and several other nation's test report figures. The only place to date that I have seen combat power Japanese A/C figures listed is in T.A.I.C. reports. So.....keep in mind that the following figures for the Ki-100 are way more than likely at continuous power levels of the engine and probably do not represent the true maximum performance that the Ki-100-I was capable of: 


ENGINE: Mitsubishi Ha-112-II: 1,[email protected] take off., 1,[email protected] 6,560ft.(2,000m). 1,[email protected] 19,030ft.(5,800m).


Altitude. Speed / Time to Height / Time from previous altitude / Average climb rate

Meters..mph / minutes to altitude / minutes from last height / fpm average / (mph from published documents)

.1,000...311    -1.20    ------    2733    (317)

.2,000...323    -2.22    1.02    3215    -N.G.

.3,000...335    -3.12    --.91    3604    -N.G.

.4,000...333    -4.48    1.35    2429    -N.G.

.5,000...342    -6.00    1.52    2158    (352)

.6,000...357    -7.42    1.42    2310    (360)

.7,000...353    -8.93    1.51    2172    --N.G.

.8,000...345    10.95    2.02   1624    (354)

.9,000...337    -N.G.    ------    ------    --N.G.

10,000..327    20.00    9.05    -725    (332)



FTH in low s/c: 337 mph./3,210 m.

Switch low to high: 333 mph./4,000 m.

FTH in high s/c: 359 mph./6,140 m.


Maximum permissible dive: 528 mph. The Japanese considered the Ki 100 to have superior handling

     qualities to the P-51 in a dive.


Service Ceiling: 37,730 ft.


Range: Clean: 870 mls. With 2 x 44 imp.gal.drop tanks: 1,370 mls.


Wing Area: 215.28 sq.ft.


Weights: Empty: 5,567 lbs. Loaded in clean condition: 7,705 lbs. Maximum permissible: 8,365 lbs.


Wing Loading: 35.79 lbs./sq.ft.


Power Loading: 5.137-lbs./hp.


Armament: 2 x 20mm w/200-250rpg in upper fuselage + 2 x 12.7mm w/250rpg in wings.


NOTE: Reference:

27 March 2017 update: The above information is from Famous Planes of the World No.23,

Kawasaki Ki 100 'Goshikisen' Army Type 5 Fighter by Bunrin Do Co. Ltd. 1990.

The actual figures posted for the Ki 100-I are as follows:



Km/H / Meters 

500 / 1,000 (510)

520 / 2,000

539 / 3,000

543 / 3,210

551 / 5,000 (567)

575 / 6,000 (580)

578 / 6,140

568 / 7,000

556 / 8,000 (570)

542 / 9,000

527 /10,000(535)



Meters / Time

  1,000 /   1' 12"

  2.000 /   2' 13"

  3,000 /   3' 08"

  4,000 /   4' 29"

  5,000 /   6' 00"

  6,000 /   7' 26"

  7,000 /   8' 56"

  8,000 / 10' 47"(11' 30')

10,000 / 20"00"


Service Ceiling: 11,500 m.

Edited by CORSNING, 27 March 2017 - 07:46 PM.



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Posted 17 August 2013 - 09:16 PM

PROJECT TED NO. PTR-1115, FINAL REPORT ON COMPARATIVE COMBAT EVALUATION TRIALS OF JAPANESE TONY I TYPE 3 FIGHTER. This report can be seen at www.wwiiaircraftperformance.org under the Japan heading Ki.61. The Ki-61-I was compared to the FM-1, F6F-5, F4U-1D, F4U-4, F7F-3 and F8F-1. TONY I combat weight was 6,150 lbs. in the trials. In the GENERAL COMPARISON the following is listed.

In general, U.S. Navy fighter planes have the following advantages over the Tony I. Type 3:

a. Greater speed.

b. Higher rate of climb.

c. Higher rate of roll (high speeds).

d. Better altitude performance.

e. Faster acceleration.

f. Greater high speed maneuverability.

The Tony has the following advantages:

a. Shorter minimum radius of turn.

b. Greater maneuverability at low speeds.

The report continues by comparing the U.S. A/C individually to the TONY I.

FM-2 suggested tactics:


a. Greater rate of climb.

b. Superior high speed roll.



a. Less speed.

b. Less acceleration.

A little note needs to be entered here. The FM-2 along with the P-40N were the only U.S. semi-front line A/C that could outturn the Tony at any speed as far as I know at this time.

Edited by CORSNING, 27 March 2017 - 08:23 PM.



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Posted 26 September 2015 - 08:04 PM

                      KAWASAKI Ki 61 HIEN (SWALLOW) 'TONY' TIMELINE


November 1935: Ki 28 work began in anticipation of the 1936 Fighter Competition. With its

     Ha-9-II Ko / 800 hp. engine it could reach 301.


1936 Competition: The Ki 28 demonstrated sparkling performance in speed, acceleration

     and climb against the Mitsubishi Ki 33 and Nakajima Ki 27. "Although it had a wider turn

     radius, the Ki 28's higher speed ensured that the aircraft could travel 360 degrees in the

     same lapsed time as the other fighters." The Ki 27 was the most maneuverable of the three.


December 1940: The first of 12 Ki 61 prototypes was completed, S/N 6101.


2nd week of December 1940: 1st flight. Kawasaki Ha-40 (Licensed Daimler Benz DB 601A): 1,150 hp.


18 April 1942: Warrant Officer Ryozaburo Umekawa was relaxing on the ground smoking a cigarette

     with Major Yoshitsugu Aramaki at Mito airfield when they were alerted to the Doolittle Raid on

     Tokyo. With Binoculars they spotted a medium-size US aircraft flying at about 650 ft. They had

     been flying gunnery trials. WO Umekawa attempted to intercept a b-25B heading south at 1000 ft.

     with non-explosive ammunition. He managed to make three passes and hit near the wing root of

     the bomber, noting oil or fuel streaming back. Lack of fuel forced WO Umekawa to turn back. This

     was the 1st combat sortie of the Ki 61.


Note: Fore a more comprehensive report of this interception which included A6M2s and Ki 27s read

     Aircraft of the Aces No.114, "Ki-61 and Ki-100 ACES" by Nicholas Millman.


August 1942: Twelve test aircraft had been completed. When test flown against the P-40E, Bf 109E,

     Ki.43-II and Ki.44-I, the Ki.61 was deemed to have the best performance overall.


December 1942: The 68th Sentai began transitioning from Nakajima Ki 27s to Kawasaki Ki 61s at

     the Akeno Rikugun Koku Gakko ( Army Aviation School ) in Japan. 34 Ki.61s had been produced.

     Retractable tail wheel.

     Armament: 2 x 12.7 mm. Ho-103 machine cannon in the cowl + 2 x 7.7 mm machine guns, wings.

Note: The Japanese Army designated any automatic weapon above 11 mm. as a machine cannon.


January 1943: Production Ki 61-la/Ko are delivered with.

     Engine: Kawasaki Ha-40: 1,175 hp./2,500 rpm./T.O.   1,100 hp./2,400 rpm./13,780 ft. (4,201 m.).  

          Compression ratio: 6.9:1

     Armament: 2 x 7.7 mm. type 89 + 2 x 12.7 mm. Ho-103/200 rpg.


April 1943: 68th and 78th Sentais are equipped with the Ki-61-la.


16 June 1943: Ki-61-la 1st combat. 68th Sentai stationed at Wewak, New Guinea.


18 July 1943: First air to air combat was against P-38Gs.

     " The P-38 pilots all like the "Tony". It may have been a bit faster than the current Jap fighters

     we were fighting, but we had plenty of speed to spare, and the "Tony" was a lot less maneuverable

     than either the Zero-Sen or the "Oscar", so it was an easy victory when encountered. It also

     appeared , to our delight, that the pilots who flew them were not of the highest skill."

                                               Five-kill Lightning ace Charles King, 39th FS / 35th FG.


August 1943: 800 20 mm. MG 151 cannon with ammunition had been transshipped from a German

     submarine to a Japanese Submarine in the Indian Ocean.


September 1943: Special Kawasaki modification teams were sent overseas bases to modify the wing

     armament of a proportion of the operational aircraft.  Simultaneously all remaining Ki 61-la/Ko airframes

     on the Kagamigahara assembly line were modified to take the German MG 151 20 mm. cannon.

     Production of the Ki.61-I Hei (Ki.61-Ic) began.


October 1943: 800 20 mm. MG 151 cannon with ammunition had been transshipped from a German

     submarine to a Japanese Submarine in the Indian Ocean.


Mid-December 1943: The 78th Sentai received six Ki.61-I Hei (Ki.61-Ic) fighters with German MG 151

     20 mm. cannon in the wings.


December 1943: Eight Ki.61-IIs were completed with a bigger wing.

     Engine: Kawasaki Ha-140: 1,500 hp./2,750 rpm./T.O.   1,350 hp./2,650 rpm./2,000 m.   1,250 hp./

     2,650 rpm./5,700 m.    Compression ratio was 7.2:1.

     Wing span remained the same but area increased 10% to 236.8 sq. ft.

     Redesigned aft canopy for improved visibility.

     Poor engine reliability, very weak crankshaft.

     Revised airframe was weak and the wing would crack in flight.

Note: Reverting to the standard wing of the Ki.61-I corrected the cracking problem.

     Performance of this Ki.61-II was now 394 mph./6,000 m. and 5,000m could be attained in 6 minutes.


January 1944: Ki 61-l-KAId/Tei production models begin to appear with the same armament as the Ki 61-lb. 

     The fuselage is extended 7.5 in. longer to 29 ft. 2.75 in. Replacing the 12.7 mm. cowl cannon with

      the 20 mm. cannon required 200 mm lengthening of the fuselage.


Autumn 1944: Ki 61-l-KAId/Tei has constant problems with wing armament and is discontinued.

     Wing armament is 2 x 30 mm. Ho-105 cannon.


Note: Ki 61 pilots adopted hit-&-run tactics to cope with the F6F Hellcat and were proven relatively effective.


April 1944: Ki 61-ll-KAIa / Ko 1st flight. Eight of the Ki.61-II airframes were flown. The ninth became

     the Ki.61-II-Kai Ko.

     *Armament: 2 x 12.7mm./200 rpg. + 2 x 20 mm./120 rpg.

     *Fuselage was lengthened to 32 ft. 2/3 in.


August 1944: Production of the Ki.61-II-Kai began.


September 1944: Ki 61-ll-KAIa begin to appear operationally. 99 aircraft of this type are produced

     in the spring


Date ?: Ki 61-ll-KAIb/Otso with an armament of 4 x 20 mm. cannon. Rudder area was enlarged.


January 1945: Production of the Ki.61-I Tei was terminated with 1,358 of this model being produced.


Note: Many of the Ki.61-I Tei had the wing armament and cockpit armor removed to improve high

     altitude performance.


Note: Frequent failures of the main bearings, the superchargers and the oil & coolant systems soon

     rendered the Ha-140 an even more notoriously unreliable engine than the Ha-40. When it did

     function smoothly, however, it was universally admitted that the Ki 61-ll-KAI was a quite outstanding

     fighter capable of holding its own with the best Allied warplanes in its class.


Note: One authoritative source reports that only 99 Ki.61-II Kai were eventually delivered and an

     unknown quantity of these had the teardrop canopy.



     Air International August 1975 Vol.9 No.2.

     P-38 Lightning vs. Ki 61 Tony, New Guinea 1943-44

     Aircraft of the Aces 114: Ki-61 and Ki-100 Aces by Nicholas Millman

Edited by CORSNING, 02 April 2017 - 12:27 PM.



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Posted 27 September 2015 - 11:44 AM

                                                                 Ki 100 vs Ki 61-ll-KAI


Page 187, 2nd column: " Marginally slower than the Ki 61-ll-KAI at all altitudes, the Ki 100 was more

     maneuverable and offered better climb rate to operational altitude...take-off and landing characteristics

     were adjudged greatly improved."


                                                                     Ki 100 vs P-51C


Page 187: "...slower than the USAAF fighter, the Ki 100 enjoyed a distinct advantage in maneuverability

     and possessed superior diving characteristics." (By Japanese standards)


                                                                      Ki 100 vs F6F


Page 187/188: " In so far as the F6F Hellcat was concerned, it was believed that the Ki 100 could best

      this US Navy shipboard fighter on all counts."


                                                                      Ki 100 vs B-29


Page 191: "Above 23,000 ft. the performance of the Ki 100 fell off badly,...thus being relatively ineffective

      against high flying B-29s.


                                                                     Ki 100 vs P-51D


Page 191: Masashi Sumita (a former 18th Sentai pilot) when asked to compare the two. " In my view, the

      Ki 100 was capable of taking on two Mustangs at one time. Its turning capability was such that there

      was no problem shaking a Mustang from one's tail. The engine of the Ki 100 was excellent and in my

      opinion the Kawasaki fighter suffered only two serious defects; the fuses of the electrical gun operating

      mechanism were prone to blowing and the radio equipment was virtually useless in many circumstances."



     Air International October 1976 Vol.11 No.4

Edited by CORSNING, 02 April 2017 - 12:52 PM.



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Posted 27 March 2017 - 08:25 PM

Kawasaki Ki 100-II


The following information comes from Famous Planes of the World No,23,

Kawasaki Ki 100 'Goshikisen' Army Type 5 Fighter by Bunrin Do Co. Ltd. 1990.



Km/H / Meters

500 /  1,000           (311 mph./   3281 ft.)

560 /  5,000           (348 mph./16,404 ft.)

570 /  6,000           (354 mph./19,685 ft.)

585 /  8,000           (363.5 mph./26,247 ft.)

590 /10,000           (367 mph./32,808 ft.)



Meters / Time

  5,000 /  6' 40"

  8.000 /11' 30"

10,000 /18' 00"


Engine: Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru: 1,500 hp./T.O.   1,370 hp./7,000 m.   1,240 hp./10,000 m.  


Combat Weight: 3,670 kg. (8,092 lbs.)


Wing Area: 215.28 sq. ft.


Wing Loading: 37.59 lbs./sq. ft.


Power Loading: 5.395 lbs./hp.


Armament: 2 x 20mm. Ho-5 cannon in the fuselage + 2 x 12.7 mm. Type 1 Ho-103 machine



Maximum Range (Francis J. Francillon): 1,800 km. (1,118 mls.)




Edited by CORSNING, 04 April 2017 - 06:34 PM.

#8 Laurelix


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Posted 28 March 2017 - 01:13 PM

565km/h at 10,000m is a typo. its 590km/h at 10,000m at military power.



Thank you Laurelix, Jeff ;)

Edited by CORSNING, 28 March 2017 - 08:07 PM.



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Posted 02 April 2017 - 12:51 PM

                                                       Kawasaki Ki.100 Timeline



September 1944: The production of the Ha-140 engines had lagged behind the procuction

     of the Ki.61-II-Kai airframes. The IJAAF Air HQ directed Kawasaki to fit the surplus of

     airframes with the Mitsubishi Ha-33/62 (Ha-112-II) Kinsei (Venus) radial engines:1,500 hp.

     The conversion utilized a newly designed cowling, fairing & propeller tat were strongly

     influenced by an imported Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-5.


February 1945: The first flight of the Ki.100 prototype with the Ha-112-II engine. Wholesale

     conversion of the II-Kai airframes began.

     Ha-112-II: 1,500 hp./T.O.    1,350 hp./2,000 m.    1,250 hp./5,800 m.

     Armament: 2 x 12.7 mm./250 rpg. + 2 x 20 mm./200 rpg.


March 1945: The 18th Sentai, 10th Hikoshidan became one of the 1st units to convert to the

     Ki.100. By July it had only 12-15 flyable aircraft.


9/10 March 1945: The first combat of the Ki.100-Ko (Ki.100-Ia) of the 18th Sentai.


23 April 1945: The 244th Sentai, 30th Air Fighter Group receive its first Ki.100s.


May 1945: The Ki.100-Ib/Otso with a teardrop canopy becomes operational with the 5th Sentai.


May 1945: The Ki.100-II made its maiden flight. The Ha-112-II was fitted with a Ru-102 turbo-

     supercharger and water-methanol injection. This would have been the lightest turbo-

     supercharged (Japanese) fighter of World War 2.


June 1945: Full production switched to the new Ki.100. 275 engines and airframes had been

     converted, mated and delivered to the IJAAF by this time.




     Air International October 1976 Vol.11, No.4

     Aircraft of the Aces 114, Ki-61 and Ki-100 Aces by Nicholas Millman.

Edited by CORSNING, 02 April 2017 - 06:06 PM.



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Posted 02 April 2017 - 01:24 PM

Kawasaki Ki.61-I Notes: Aircraft of the Aces 114:


Page 16: "The Hein was the most formidable IJAAF fighter deployed in New Guinea but

it was to suffer from technical shortcomings in its engine configuration that were

exacerbated by conditions in the field and the challenges of adequate maintenance. The

very high pressure of the Mitsubishi fuel injection system led to fuel leakage and fuel line

ruptures. The ignition system was troublesome, with poor quality spark plugs causing

pre-ignition or constant fouling. Leaks in the coolant system du to poor castings caused

overheating and the quality of bearings caused many failures. Cumulatively, these

issues mititated against the effectiveness of the design as a combat fighter, and

prevented it from reaching its potential in the most crucial aerial campaigns facing the

IJAAF. They also led to a lack of confidence in the fighter by those pilots flying it in

combat for the first time, and who were familiar with the more reliable radial, air-cooled

engines fitted in all other IJAAF types."


Page 19: "Sgt. Kajinami considered the Ki-27 to be more like a sports aircraft with its

agility, but he did not like the Ki-43 due to its weak structure. He preferred the Hien

for its much tgher structure, considering that to be one of the main reasons he

survived combat over New Guinea. In contrast to the opinion of other IJAAF pilots,

he thout the DB 601 engine was very robust, and after one encounter it got him

home safely despite having suffered damage from two hits. During dogfights the

Hein could attain 328 mph. without sustaining damage to the airframe, whereas

the 'Oscar' would often suffer structural failures if flown at high speed and subjected

to violent maneuvering."

     "The fuel injection pump fitted to the Hien was problematic, however, and

without adequate maintenance it often failed, causing the engine to stop abruptly.

There was also an intermittent problem with the propeller whereby the pitch

control sometimes jammed, preventing the aircraft from being able to climb

properly. Another significant weakness of the Hien was the auxiliary fuel tank

in the fuselage. Not only could it exploded suddenly if hit, the tank also made

the aircraft tail heavy and caused it to pitch up when fully loaded. This meant

that the Hien was prone to stalling during takeoffs and landings, resulting in the

deaths of many pilots. The dangers posed by this tank were such that the 68th

Sentai commander Maj. Noburo Shimoyama ordered its removal from the

aircraft flown by his unit."


Page 62: By December the 56th Sentai: "The unit had gained valuable experience

in the battle against the bombers, modifying its Hiens to achieve better high-

altitude performance through the removal of wing cannon and armour, and

claming several of the bombers shot down as a result."


Page 67: In April 1944 the 59th Sentai was assigned to the 19th Hikodan in the

Western Defence Sector. "The unit was not yet entirely familiar with the new

aircraft, and considerable engine trouble was experienced. Vapour locks in

the engines routinely occurred after takeoff and the fighters sometimes

stalled following steep dives.


Page 77: " Within the 244th the practice of removing armament and armour to

improve high-altitude performance was not limited to the Shinten Seikurai.

Some pilots had the wing guns stripped out, others the cowling guns and

some even flew with only one cowling gun installed. The principal reason

for de-arming the Ki.61 was the inconsistent altitude performance of

individual aircraft, pilots being forced to modify them to achieve optimum


Edited by CORSNING, 02 April 2017 - 05:40 PM.

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