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GOT: The Caproni-Campini CC.2


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#1 Romantic Technofreak

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Posted 19 April 2008 - 12:45 AM

When Greg has a well-known aircraft on his list of obscurities, it is the question if a GOT topic about it can be more useful than the sources you can google on the net. Eventually, the Caproni-Campini CC.2 (some say, this designation is wrong and "N.1" would be correct) is well documented, also in English language, and you can find everything also without my help. But the advantage of a GOT topic is that you can get everything necessary on one click, the sources were compared, contradictions are already tried to be cleared and the layout is to sort everything in an understandable and entertaining way. I think I should do this if just setting some links seems not to be sufficient, and this is the case for this plane.

I chose one main source, see link below. The text is not shortened, but rearranged. Another source is http://warandgame.wo...campini-ni-cc2/, where a contributor who calls himself *critcalmass* does some interesting remarks. These are inserted below. Now, let's start with

The Caproni-Campini CC.2

Main source: http://www.museoscie...reo/caproni.asp
Texts by Aldo Curti - Editing by Giuliano Gaia
We gratefully acknowledge the technical assistance of Ing. Mario Mantero.

One of the World's Earliest Jets
Not everybody really knows that Italy was the world's second country to launch a jet after Germany. That jet was the Campini-Caproni CC-2, of which the Milan Museum of Science houses the fuselage for static tests, and the engine. A complete aircraft of this type is preserved at the Aeronautical Museum of Vigna di Valle in the Rome area.


Ing. Campini
Soon after graduating from university in 1929, Bologna-born Ing. Secondo Campini set about studying jet propulsion, and published an article in the periodical, Rivista Aeronautica, on its prospective application to aeronautics. In 1931, Ing. Campini submitted a report on his propulsion system to the Italian Air Ministry. In the same year, he founded the V.E.N.A.R. (jet aircraft and watercraft) company, which was the world's first reaction engine manufacturer. Again in 1931, thanks to the support given by the Milan Riva company, he built the world's first motorboat propelled by water-jet drive. Water was collected and piped to a centrifugal pump featuring a double-throw spiral. The pump, which was driven by a 9 hp Isotta Fraschini engine, directed water through two adjustable needle nozzles, which could then be used as a helm. This motorboat attained the speed of over 28 knots in Venice, where it was tested in 1932.

On 5 February, 1934, the Italian Air Ministry and Ing. Campini signed a contract to build two jets and one fuselage for static tests. As the company of Ing. Campini did not have the means to implement its designs, it affiliated with the Caproni company of Taliedo. But the former was solely responsible for the supervision of the work for the plan and construction of the aircraft. Tests led Ing. Campini to work on a United States patent in order to make another jet, which unfortunately was never built. The 31st/12/1936 deadline set for the submission of the prototypes was missed because of technical difficulties and rising costs. This led the Air deputy-minister, Mr. Valle, to grant an extension. So it was that a fuselage for static and engine tests - which is now housed at the Milan Museum of Science - was completed. This fuselage provided static thrust for 700 kg. Two prototypes nos. M.M.487 and M.M.488 of the Campini-Caproni CC-2 aircraft were then made.

Technical Specifications
The Campini Caproni CC.2 aircraft is a single-propelled, tandem, two-seat, low-wing monoplane of all-duralumin construction.The wings are elliptical in plan. Other features include a pressurized cabin for altitude flight. The undercarriage is of the retractable type, the wheels rotating outwards during retraction into the wing thickness. The tail wheel retracts into dedicated fairing. The fuselage is of circular section structure. The rear section accommodates the exhaust pipe, complete with a cone for directing the flow of gases.

Fine drawings from drawings.jexiste.fr:

ww2drawingsjexistefrLeft.jpg

ww2drawingsjexistefrFront.jpg

ww2drawingsjexistefrTop.jpg


Other Data
Ducted fan with three rotors, of which two are rotating, and one is fixed (a "fixed rotor" is a contradiction within itself, RT); burners provide 700 kg thrust; engine of the compressor, 900 hp Isotta Fraschini L. 121/R.C. 40; length, 12.10 m; height, 4.70 m; span, 14.63 m; wing area, 36 sq m; weight empty, 3,640 kg; total weight, 4,217 kg; useful load, 577 kg; maximum speed at an altitude of 3,000 m without burner, 325 km/h; maximum speed at an altitude of 3,000 m with burner, 359.5 km/h; climb, 1,000 m in 9 min. (with burner); maximum altitude attained in the course of acceptance flight tests, 4,000 m.


The Engine of the CC-2 Aircraft
Like a gun, which 'reacts' with a quick backward movement (i.e. the recoil) when a projectile is shot forward at high speed, a jet engine derives its thrust by reaction to its high-speed ejection of combustion products, and by the expansion of heated air, which is pushed out at a higher speed than when the air is drawn in. (After all, ordinary propellers work in a similar way. They accelerate backwards the air mass that moves through their rotating blades.) These introductory remarks are meant to help our visitors gain an insight into the workings of Ing. Campini's thermojet. It is, in effect, to be considered more as a hybrid than as a jet engine proper. An internal combustion engine characterized by reciprocating motion of pistons in its cylinder - in our case, a 900 hp Isotta Fraschini L. 121/R.C. 40 engine - drove a compressor incorporating 2 ducted propellers and a propeller designed to direct the flow and minimize the breakdown of the smooth airflow. A ring of injectors (i.e. the burners) introduced kerosine, whose combustion increased the volume of the thermojet and the exhaust velocity.

*critcalmass* completes:
A ducted propeller worked as an air compressor pumping fresh air in a Venturi duct: the injection of fuel worked as the first afterburners used on F-100 Super Sabre during 1950#8217;s. There were not annular combustion chambers and the ducted propeller was unable to change hydraulically the inclination of the blades (pitch). Also the jet exhaust had no flux adjustment by changing the outer diameter of the outlet, like it happens on modern jets. These were the reasons of the too long venturi duct crossing the fuselage. (end *critcalmass*)

First two of the following drawings included in the main source.
Functional scheme of the Campini concept:
cc_motore_bigmuseoscienza.gif

Junkers Jumo 004 axial jet engine for comparison:
cc_jumo_bigmuseoscienza.gif

Position of the powerplant within the fuselage (from br.geocities.com):
brgeocitiescom.jpg

Said to be the Isotta Fraschini L. 121/R.C. 40 engine. [According to Dogwalker (see below), this is an Isotta-Fraschini Asso 750].
IFAsso750VignadiValleaGhedi.jpg
In sources wrongly referred as radial, doubtfully as "V". How can you describe this? Three-row pitchfork?


The CC-2 Aircraft Flies!
On 27 August, 1940, the first prototype was tested for 10 minutes over the Taliedo airfield by the great pilot, Mario De Bernardi (Schneider Trophy winner of 1926, RT). On 16 September that same year it was flown for another 5 minutes, thus undergoing the acceptance flight test in order that the second prototype was upgraded. The latter made its maiden flight on 11 April, 1941. On 30 November, 1941, at 2:47 pm, Mario De Bernardi and Ing. Giovanni Pedace flew the second prototype on an official flight from the airport of Milan Linate and that of Rome Guidonia. After flying over Pisa, they landed at 4:58 pm after covering 475.554 km at the average speed of 217.147 km/h. According to the pilot's wish, the afterburner was never actuated in order to save fuel.

The flight was a tremendous success, so much so that Mussolini personally complimented De Bernardi, and low-altitude flights were made over Rome, preceded by announcements repeatedly broacast by radio (if I had been a Roman of this time, I admit I must have had a very stiff neck..., RT[8D]). The event took the world by storm, and no less than 33 countries congratulated the Italian government. These flights were recognized by the F.A.I. (Fédération Aéronautique Internationale) to be the first ever made by a jet. Truth to tell, the plan conceived by the German, Hans von Ohain, and the Heinkel group, whereby the extraordinary He.178 aircraft was flown precisely a year before, on 27th August, 1939, had been kept secret.

Inflight. From finn.it:
finnit_n1.jpg

Inflight. From fronta.cz
frontacz.jpg

Ground, a general (left side) is interested. From finn.it
finnit.jpg

 

(Separated into two articles because of picture limitation. Continue reading in my posting from 07/31/2013. Sorry for inconvenience, RT)



#2 Romantic Technofreak

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Posted 19 April 2008 - 12:51 AM

Already since quite a time, the Snitz forum has trouble to convert an apostrophe (don't know if you see numbers like #8230 too). In my texts I now use a high comma instead, but I was not attentive to *critcalmass*'s text. Correction is also impossible. Sorry.

Regards, RT

#3 Wuzak

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Posted 19 April 2008 - 09:51 AM

Interestingly there were several German projects during and preceding WW2 using piston engines in various ways to create jet propulsion. Some of them used small X-16 engines to drive compressors which was then used to produce jet thrust by burning fuel in a combustion chamber.

#4 Wuzak

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Posted 19 April 2008 - 10:03 AM

quote:Originally posted by Romantic Technofreak

Ducted fan with three rotors, of which two are rotating, and one is fixed (a "fixed rotor" is a contradiction within itself, RT)


A "fixed rotor" would usually be termed a stator....



quote:Originally posted by Romantic Technofreak

Said to be the Isotta Fraschini L. 121/R.C. 40 engine.
Posted Image
In sources wrongly referred as radial, doubtfully as "V". How can you describe this? Three-row pitchfork?


The similar Napier Lion was vriously termed a "W" or "Broad Arrow" layout.


As usual RT, a masterful GOT!

And such an interesting and unusual aircraft - I bet it could have gone faster with the 900hp motor driving a regular airscrew.

#5 Red Admiral

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Posted 19 April 2008 - 05:45 PM

Needs some corrections;

Posted Image

The compressor/fan is a 3-stage axial with 3 rows of stator blades not shown. A unique feature were the variable pitch rotor blades, actuated by a hydraulic ram. A similar feature was seen in the 60s with the J-79 but that used variable pitch stator vanes. The fan pressure ratio is about 1.5

The engine driving it is a modification of the Isotta-Fraschini Delta aircooled V-12. The version used lacked a supercharger which limited power at altitude severely. It gave 900hp. Fuel consumption for the burners was 25/L per minute, so specific fuel consumption is slightly worse off than the Ju 004 with burners on.

THe method of operation; The air enters at the front and is dynamically compressed in the forward section. It then passes through the axial compressor, raising it's pressure and temperature. Heat is then added by the engine fins and the exhaust. It then passes through a venturi tube until it encounters the axial ring burners where fuel is injected and burnt to create more thrust. It then passes through a con-div variable area nozzle to the atmosphere.

The low performance of the aircraft was not due to the system itself. THe aircraft was very large and heavy and fairly draggy. The wing load was only 22lb/sq ft and a large pressurised cockpit was fitted. A much smaller aircraft without pressurisation would have greatly increased performance. The system itself is better than the piston-propellor combination at high speed and altitude, but the jet was invented instead to fill this need. Increasing the thrust is simple, simply fit a more powerful engine to drive the fan.

Posted Image
Posted Image

Campini CS.3 and CS.6 from 1940. The three engined type was a high altitude machine with the burners being on the wing engines, the central engine also supercharging the others. The helicopter uses a big centrifugal compressor to eject air out of the tips of the rotor.

Posted Image
Posted Image

Later projects for a fighter and bomber with Campini engines. I have some stats somewhere, but they are rather optimistic. Theres also another similar project with a maximum speed of 1250km/h which is extremely doubtful.

Posted Image
Posted Image

Caproni 183 high altitude interceptor. Note that the Fiat A.30 engine is a V-12 inline and not a radial engine as commonly reported. It drives a two stage supercharger, which is then intercooled and passes to the supercharger on the DB 605. It provides 1250hp up to 15.000m altitude. Some of the air intake is bled off, passes through another supercharger and serves the Fiat A.30 engine. The jet campini system features a precooler, then the fan. THe air is then heated by the water cooled radiator and the burners before exiting aft. Thrust was around 150kg.

#6 Romantic Technofreak

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Posted 20 April 2008 - 04:35 AM

Thank you for your kind words, Wuzak, and for your completions, Gavin!:)

Regards, RT

#7 Red Admiral

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Posted 20 April 2008 - 07:05 PM

Source is mostly Aerofan magazine, Rivista Italiana di Difesa and a poster on secretprojects.co.uk by the name of skybolt

The Figher project is span 12,3 m, wing area 19,78 sqm, structural weight 2140 kg, crew-load-etc 1110 kg, weapons 4 machine guns 12,7 mm (2000 rounds) 2 guns 20 mm (150 rounds), max speed 850 km/h range 600 km, crew 1. Power given by a single DB 605 in the fuselage.

Bomber: span 19,4m, wing area 50 sqm, structural weight 4950 kg, fuel-armament-pilots-lubricants,etc 3420 kg, crew 3, defensive weapons six machine guns 12,7 mm (2400 rounds), bombs 1000 kg, max speed 750 km/h, range 1500 km.

Posted Image

1940 project for a twin engined aircraft using two 1350hp engines. wingspan 18,8 m; wing surface 48 sqm; 8400kg; take-off run 500 m; range at 10000 m 3000 km, cruise speed at 10000 m 750 KM/h; max speed at 10000 m 1050 KM/h. Rather optimisitc. In a postwar interview Campini stated that he started to develop a 3000hp gas turbine for this aircraft which would push maximum speed to 1250km/h





#8 Pete57

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Posted 21 April 2008 - 07:09 PM

I don't known if any of Campini's designs would have lived up to their designer's expectations, but in my opinion, the most successful and ingenious application of the thermojet was the auxiliary unit used to boost the speed of the I-250(N)/MiG-13, which topped an impressive 513mph (825kmph)!

Regards

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which holds forth the proposition that it is entirely possible to pick up a turd by the clean end -
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#9 Romantic Technofreak

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Posted 31 July 2013 - 03:57 PM

(Continuation of the original article, reason see there (ending), RT)

Ground test, Winston Churchill (identified without any doubt by his bowler hat) at the controls. Directly after this scene he will leave the cockpit to light his cigar on the exhaust fire :))
groundtest.jpg

(Pictures edited, with limited success, using XnView)

De Bernardi and a panel of military engineers went on testing the CC.2 aircraft at the experimental centre at Guidonia until September, 1942 (*critcalmass* sees the reason of the stop in the pass-away of Air Marshal Italo Balbo, apparently a main supporter of the project and known for his dedicated anti-German attitude. But his death already happened on 28 June 1940, when his SM-79 came in low right after a flock of British Blenheims, which just before bombed Tobruk airfield and AA from old grounded cruiser San Giorgo opened fire. There are still people who believe Balbo was assassinated on Mussolini's order, RT). However, the results were disappointing because of the limited overall maximum power. So it was that the prototypes, having no further prospective developments, were stored in a hangar where they were damaged by German air raids on 24 October, 1943. In June, 1944, the Anglo-American commission salvaged the fuselage of the second prototype, and transferred it to the Royal Aircraft Establishment of Farnborough. After 1949, all trace was lost of the second prototype. The first prototype, on the other hand, is now housed in the Aeronautical Museum of Vigna di Valle, near Rome. The fuselage for static tests, and the reaction engine are on display at the Milan Museum of Science and Technology.

Air intake. From airpower.callihan.cc:
airintakeairpowercallihancc.jpg

Side view. From planepictures.com:
planepicturesnet.jpg

Air outlet. From airpower.callihan.cc:
airoutlet.jpg

The engine designed by Ing. Campini had many other drawbacks. That is, it was heavy and bulky, the type of engine used to drive the compressor was rather complex, the efficiency of the burner was low - although it came close to the best possible performance of the day -, and maximum power was considerably limited. This is why the German design - which came into use when World War II was drawing to an end, and was partly due to the British research work carried out in parallel - is the forerunner of the modern jet engines, while the Italian version has a purely historical value.


Other projects by Ing. Campini

Pre-WWII:
Campini's prototypes in progress included a two-jet aircraft flying in stratosphere, and an autogiro. They were named S.C.3 and S.C.5 respectively - their modified versions being named, S.C.4 and S.C.6 respectively -. The autogiro was a two-seater jet-propelled helicopter, whose all-up weight was 500 kg. By going round, its rotor blades generated high speed and dynamic pressure, thus actuating the ramjet engines which were fixed to their ends. A 120 hp engine produced the power required to activate the ramjet engines. These plans, however, were never to be implemented because of the war.

During WWII:
In 1942, Ing. Campini was commissioned by the Italian Royal Navy two single-seater water-jet-propelled mini-submarines (maximum power 1,000 hp; displacement 7 tons at the estimated speed of 30 knots; cruising radius 1,000 km). The prototypes completed, fitted with the reaction engines, which had already undergone the acceptance flight test, were destroyed in 1944 by air raids. Other brainchildren of Ing. Campini, like a two-jet bomber and a fighter driven by the Campini-devised propulsion system, were never implemented.

Post-WWII:
In 1948, Ing. Campini moved to the USA, where he conceived of a four-seater helicopter with a 200 hp turbine. In 1949, he carried out a new plan for a big helicopter with a rotor actuated by two turbines, which were capable of lifting a 40-ton armoured car. He received a commission by the American government to design a 6,000 kg-thrust long-range turbojet, and considered replacing the 4 propeller-driven engines of the Northrop YB-35 bomber with turbojets, and constructing the strategic bomber, B-49. Ing. Secondo Campini passed away in Milan on 7 February, 1980.

End of original text. The question is, if Campini's concept was ever promising. First, you know that the Japanese Navy adopted the engine concept for its Yokosuka Okha suicide attacker. What also does not lead very much further. But let's hear whar *critcalmass* adds:

Now try to imagine, as a never built CC2, a turbo-diesel engine moving hydraulically an adjustable pitch fan in a short duct having annular combustion chamber and a variable geometry outlet... this never to be produced evolution of Caproni Campini could fly at low speed with the lowest consumption possible of vegetable oil (colza, sesami ect) closest as possible to the Allied bomber "boxes"; and after attacking - by using the afterburner! With a sudden injection of methyl alcohol into the after burner this CC2 could have a good chance to reach or pass Mach1 during a climbing high Mach strafing attack to the allied close bomber box-formations, to be repeated till end of alcoholic fuel. Finally this strange half-jet would have the possibility to reach its own landing-site by mean of the diesel engine at "cruise economical" speed and without burning a litre of rare petrol... This was the real final target for the Caproni-Campini project: the first supersonic "8220;no-petrol" interceptor. The only competitors were the German rocket fighter Me-163, Me-263, Ju-248.
(end *critcalmass*)

Hear, hear! While booze is still needed, you can cancel bleach and apply biofuel instead! (I learned that "colza" is the rape plant). Besides I can't imagine that the agricultural capabilities of the Axis powers and especially Italy would haver ever been sufficient to substitute petrol gas by any means of biofuel, and there was no really well-working high-performance diesel aircraft engine in WWII, the idea is amazing!

So, if a "pure Campini" concept were ever promising, is still unclear. Already being a hybrid, further considerations existed to combine it with just another element, a simple piston engine. The talk is about the Caproni Ca.183bis experimental fighter. I could not find a source on the web to tell if Secondo Campini was ever personally involved in this project or who the responsible engineers at Caproni's were for this. A good text about it you can find in
http://worldatwar.ne...1/italtwin.html. See:

Of course, all things are seldom equal in engineering, and Caproni (Milano) engineers reasoned that a refined Campini system might have advantages in flight regimes where conventional propellors were less efficient. At really high altitudes, the compressor might give an interceptor a very useful amount of extra thrust. Accordingly, a team commenced design work on a specialized high-altitude fighter, the CA.183bis. The CA.183bis had a liquid-cooled, 1250-hp DB.605 in the nose, driving contrarotating 3-bladed propellors. A 700-hp FIAT A.30 air-cooled radial engine drove a Campini compressor in a mid-fuselage duct. Scoops in the fuselage sides provided cooling air for the FIAT engine and air mass for the afterburner. The Campini device was expected to contribute up to 60 mph to the aircraft's 460-mph estimated top speed while endowing the airplane with a maximum range of 1242 miles. The fighter was to carry four 20-mm MG.151 cannon in the wings, outboard of the propellor, and a fifth gun in between the cylinder banks of the DB.605. Design loaded weight was 16,538 lbs. (End of original text)

Work on the Ca.183bis ended with the armistice between the Italian Kingdom and the Allies in September 1943. Germany, as always, was not capable to profit from captured aircraft project resources, and so here the story of the Campini concept ends.

There are also fine drawings of the Ca.183bis at ww2drawings.jexiste.fr. Get them yourself! I give you one from another site out of warandgame.wordpress.com:

warandgamewodpresscom.jpg


Regards, RT



#10 Dogwalker

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Posted 01 August 2013 - 08:29 AM

Just a clarification. The engine in the picture above is not a L.121, but an Asso 750.

The L.121 was a V12 engine, a version of the Asso XI (at the end of the '30, after  Ing. Cattaneo left the company, Isotta Fraschini simply changed the designation for the last version of their liquid cooled engines. The Asso XI become the L.121 and the Asso 1000 become the L.181.).

 

This is a picture of the L.121 at the Air Show of Milan in 1937 (on the right, while on the left is the W18 Asso 750).

 

3776_1937_sa_322.jpg

http://www.lombardia...-u3010-0003776/

 

There is at least one other termojet/motorjet  worth mentioning, the Tsu-11, produced in small numbers in Japan at the end of WWII, and destined to  propel the Ohka flying bomb type-22 and the the Yokosuka MXY9 Shuka  trainer.

The simple single stage compressor, operated by a 105hp four cylinders engine, could however provide 180kg static thrust (20% than that of a Jumo 004, or 3/5 than that of an Argus As 014 pulsejet, the engine of the V1) with a weight of only 200kg.

Great pictures at:

http://www.enginehis...esearch_3.shtml






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